PhD abstract

2.5D printing is between traditional color printing, for the process and its visual quality, and 3D printing, which makes forms and reliefs by ink superposition. Because of its properties, 2.5D printing could allow the realistic reproduction of objects and surfaces, but inks are too glossy. To reduce and control this glossy aspect of inks, we modulate the roughness of the printed layers, at the micro-scale, both in frequency and amplitude. Influence of parameters was measured, and different strategies were suggested to reduce sparkle and to allow the creation of matte colored layers: by constituting a 5D space where gloss and color are modeled, we can make gloss level of colored surfaces uniform.Several case studies form the Conservation of Cultural Heritage were considered, where 2.5D printing could help the curator, the conservator or the archivist. We studied in particular the issues of the the gap filling on an archaeological object, the realistic reproduction of surfaces, and the creation of matte objects for readability..

PhD thesis

Full document :

TEL : 2018CNAM1204


Key words

Gloss reduction, 2.5D color printing, Optimising the matte color, Visual appearance measurement, Micro-Scale roughness, Conservation of Cultural Heritage, Matte, Relief Printing, BRDF.

PhD abstract

Gloss is a visual appearance attribute. It is a construction from the visual system built on the optical signal from a surface and sensed by the eye. Recent developments in fundamental spectrophotometry lead to instruments able to measure luminous reflection with an acuity equal to the visual system in terms of angular resolution and dynamic. A cross-discipline description between optics and vision is now possible on a same set of samples. In this work, we build through sol-gel process a metrological gloss scale. It is multivariate in terms of surface topology, refractive indices, hue and gloss levels. This scale is then characterized in roughness, specular gloss and BRDF. We expose the measurement techniques and corrections used on our goniospectrophotomer ConDOR. This instrument is dedicated to high resolution measurement of specular peaks. By the end of this study, Condor has reached an angular resolution of 0.014°, the smaller achieved until now, twice better than the human visual system acuity. The dynamic range extends over 6.5 decades. ConDOR is used to measure BRDF of several glossy samples from different scales. These measurements are studied and discussed. A first link between roughness and BRDF is drawn.Using a reference gloss scale, we finally study two aspects of gloss perception: both effects of a change in the solid angle of illumination and in the observation environment realism. Our results indicate that the visual system is more sensitive to gloss variations under realistic conditions as well in lighting as in environment. This effect is particularly noticeable on matt samples. Lesser realistic or lesser natural conditions could lead observers to confusion.

PhD thesis

Full document :

TEL : 2017CNAM1133

Key words

Gloss, BRDF, Psychometric scales, Sol-Gel, Goniospectrophotometry, ConDOR.


We report on a widely tunable continuous-wave single-frequency pump-resonant signal-resonant optical parametric oscillator (PRSRO) delivering 20 mW to 50 mW of idler power spanning an octave bandwidth in the mid-infrared (1.7 µm–3.5 µm). This PRSRO is pumped by a continuous-wave Ti:Al2O3 single-frequency and tunable laser delivering 760 mW around 795 nm, and thanks to the pump enhancement a threshold as low as 110 mW is achieved. This nonlinear laser source which is widely tunable in the mid-IR spectral range is part of the radiometric laser chain project aimed at the calibration of the spectral responsivity of photo-detectors in the UV-IR range by spectral irradiance measurement via a cryogenic radiometer. This widely tunable source is also suited to high-resolution molecular spectroscopy in the mid-infrared range.

Key words

nonlinear optics
optical parametric oscillator
parametric interactions
tunable laser


This article describes a new technique to interrogate photonic biosensors for applications in the field of health. The first part presents a type of photonic biosensors: a planar, cyclic microresonator in polymer, shaped racetrack, coupled vertically to a straight waveguide used as input and output for the light. In order, to be adapted for biological applications, the sensor is inserted into an optofluidique cell and its surface is functionalized. The second part of the article describes the phase sensitive optical low coherence interferometer of LNE, proposed as a new interrogation technique of this type of biosensors. Originally developed to characterize, from a metrological point of view, fibre’s components used in the field of telecommunications, this Michelson interferometer with a broadband source has been adapted to such applications. Preliminary results in a biological domain highlight the relevance of this technique and of these microresonators for applications in the field of health.

Key words

optical metrology
biophotonic sensor


New “large area” trap detectors based on silicon photodiodes of (18 × 18) mm2 have been characterized to be used as standards for measuring the spectral responsivity of detectors. The study of these detectors was carried out on the experimental set-up of the laboratory based on a monochromator and sources of continuous spectral radiation. This article describes the developed trap detectors, details the method of measuring their relative spectral responsivity and presents the method used to change the relative spectral responsivity into the absolute spectral responsivity.

Key words

trap detector
spectral responsivity


The standard NF X 10-702-1 (Determination of the opacity of the fumes in an atmosphere without air renewal) describes a fire test method of materials exposed to irradiance of a furnace, by quantifying the smoke production from material in predefined irradiance exposure conditions. The standard defines the test apparatus and the operations to be carried out in order to ensure the metrological control of test apparatus. In particular, the 2.5 W·cm-2 irradiance, which a sample is exposed to during a test, must be adjusted using a radiometer. This radiometer is calibrated against a reference calorimeter according to this standard. The aim of this paper is to describe this calibration uncertainty evaluation. It includes the following steps: evaluation of the associated uncertainty of the reference calorimeter, modelling of the calibration regression and determination of the uncertainties on the irradiance for a given output tension of the radiometer. This work allowed to globally improve the quality of calibrations, through the quantification and control of uncertainties, and by supplying complementary data enlarging the calibration range.

Key words



By the scanning beam method a large monochromatic and uniform synthetic beam is obtained from the juxtaposition of a same beam at several places close together. Such an irradiance cannot be obtained by a single beam. We report here a improvement of a setup for irradiance responsivity calibration of detector. The special feature of this work is the use of an incoherent monochromatic beam with a non gaussian profile. The method has been qualified by a numerical simulation of the measurement process then validated by comparing the results with a classical method. This setup has been implemented for the irradiance responsivity measurement of a thermopile. Then, despite of the 10% local variation, its responsivity has been measured at 0.35% uncertainty level. The value agrees the previous measurements with an other method of this thermopile over 20 years. Furthermore it shows an uncertainty which is half the previous one. We plan to extend this method to other instruments such as mosaic photometer because of its ability to take into account large local responsivity variations.

Key words

optical metrology
optical radiation
scanning beam

Publications and communications in the field of "Optical radiation, radiometry and photometry" by authors of the French metrology network in 2005


GHAZI-BELLOUATI A., RAZET A., BASTIE J. et HIMBERT M.E., « Référence radiométrique pour les mesures de faible flux par conversion paramétrique », Revue Française de Métrologie, 1, 2005, 27-33.

GHAZI-BELLOUATI A., RAZET A., BASTIE J., HIMBERT M.E., DEGIOVANNI I.P., CASTELLETTO S. et RASTELLO M.L., Radiometric reference for weak radiations: comparison of methods, Metrologia, 42, 2005, 271-277.

MELLOUKI I., TOUAYAR O., KTARI T., BASTIE J. et YACOUBI N., A method for calibrating of a trap pyroelectric detector in the UV domain, Sensors and actuators, A120, 2005, 437-440.

PALAVICINI C., JAOUËN Y, DEBARGE G., KERRINCKX E., QUIQUEMPOIS Y., DOUAY M., LEPERS C., OBATON A.-F. et MELIN G., “Phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry technique applied to the characterization of photonic crystal fiber properties”, Optics letters, 30, n° 4, 2005, 361-363.

TOUAYAR O., SIFI N., KTARI T. et BASTIE J., Experimental evaluation of a pyroelectric detector linearity used for pulsed laser energy absolute measurement, Sensors and actuators, A120, 2005, 482-489.

TRAVIS J.C., CAMPOS ACOSTA J.C., ANDOR G., BASTIE J., BLATTNER P., CHUNNILALL C.J., CROSSON S.C., DUEWER D.L., EARLY E.A., HENGSTBERGER F., KIM C-S., LIEDQUIST L., MANOOCHERI F., MERCADER F., MONARD L.A.G., MITO A., NILSSON S., NOËL M., CORRÓNS RODRIGUEZ A., RUIZ A., SCHIRMACHER A., SMITH M.V., VALENCIA G., VAN TONDER N. et ZWINKELS J., Intrinsic Wavelength Standard Absorption Bands in Holmium Oxide Solution for UV/visible Molecular Absorption Spectrophotometry”, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 34, 1, 2005.


BASTIE J., Photometric measurements at the CNAM-INM, International Lighting Congress, León, Espagne, 18-20 mai 2005.

JAOUËN Y., PALAVICINI C., OBATON A.-F., MOREAU C. et SILLARD P., “Direct chromatic dispersion determination of higher-order mode fibers using OLCR technique”, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics / Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference (CLEO/QELS), Baltimore, Etats-Unis d’Amérique, 22-27 mai 2005.

OBATON A.-F., LIÈVRE M. et DUBARD J.,Phase-sensitive optical low coherent reflectometer: a metrology tool to characterize short optical fiber components”, Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/EQEC), Munich, Allemagne, 473, 12-17 juin 2005.

OBATON A-F., MOREL J. GAMBON A. et LIEVRE M., « Comparaison de réflectomètres à faible longueur de cohérence et application à la caractérisation de composants à fibres optiques », 12e Congrès international de métrologie, Lyon, France, 20-23 juin 2005.

OBEIN G., BOUSQUET R. et NADAL M., “New NIST reference goniospectrometer”, Optical Diagnostics, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 5880, San Diego, Etats-Unis d’Amérique, T1-T10, 31 juillet – 4 août 2005.

NADAL M., BOUSQUET R. et OBEIN G., “NIST reference colorimeter”, 10th Congress of the International Colour Association, 2005, Grenade, Espagne, AIC Colour 05 Proceedings, 701-704.

DUBARD J. et TÉTU B., “Multimode fibre: spectral attenuation measurement error due to stray light in single-monochromator based measuring systems”, OFMC 2005, Teddington, Royaume-Uni, septembre 2005.

COUTIN J-M, CHANDOUL F. et BASTIE J., Characterization of new trap detectors as transfer standards, 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Newrad), Davos, Suisse, 43-44, 17-19 octobre 2005.

DUBARD J., FILTZ J.-R., VALIN T. et LIÈVRE M.,Infrared Radiometry at LNE: Characterization of a pyroelectric detector used for relative spectral responsivity measurement”, 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Newrad), Davos, Suisse, 17-19 octobre 2005.

DURANTEL F., ROBBES D., GUILLET B. et BASTIE J., Non selective thermal detector for low power measurements, 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Newrad), Davos, Suisse, 221-222, 17-19 octobre 2005.

LIÈVRE M., LÉPY M-C., ROUGIÉ B., FILTZ J-R, BASTIE J., IDIR M., MORENO T. et MERCEDE P., The metrology line on SOLEIL synchrotron facility, 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Newrad), Davos, Suisse, 37-38, 17-19 octobre 2005.

SIMIONESCU M., SEUCAN A., BASTIE J. et STEPNIK A., New photometric standard development at NIM-Romania, 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Newrad), Davos, Suisse, 317-318, 17-19 octobre 2005.

SIMIONESCU M., SEUCAN A. et ROUGIÉ B., Distribution temperature scale realisation at NIM-Romania, 9th International Conference on New Developments and Applications in Optical Radiometry (Newrad), Davos, Suisse, 319-320, 17-19 octobre 2005.

COUTIN J-M, CHANDOUL F. et BASTIE J., GaAsP trap detector for UV measurement, 6th Workshop on Ultraviolet radiation measurements, Davos, Suisse, 10-12, 20-21 octobre 2005.

GHAZI A., RAZET A., BASTIE J. et HIMBERT M.E., « Nouvelle méthode d’étalonnage de détecteurs mesurant de faibles flux lumineux basée sur la conversion paramétrique dans les cristaux », Colloque international francophone CMOI (Contrôles et Mesures Optiques pour l’Industrie), Marseille, France, novembre 2005.

GABET R., CLEMENT K., MELIN G., OBATON A-F., BUROV E. et JAOUEN Y., « Caractérisation modale de fibres microstructurées par réflectométrie à faible longueur de cohérence », JNOG'05, Chambéry, France, 2005.

Publications and communications in the field of "Optical radiation, radiometry and photometry" by authors of the French metrology network in 2006


FSAIFES I., LEPERS C., OBATON A.-F. et GALLION P., “DS-OCDMA Encoder/Decoder Performance Analysis using Optical Low Coherence Reflectometry”, J. Ligthwave Technol., 24, 8, 2006, 3121-28.

GHAZI-BELLOUATI A., RAZET A., BASTIE J. et HIMBERT M.E., “Detector calibration at INM using a correlated photons source”, Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys, 35, 2006, 211-216.

HAMEL P., GABET R., OBATON A.-F., BUROV E., MELIN G. et JAOUËN Y., « Mesure de la dispersion chromatique de fibres micro-structurées par réflectométrie à faible cohérence », Revue française de métrologie, 8, 2006, 3-11.

OBATON A.-F., PALAVICINI C., JAOUËN Y., KERRINCKX E., QUIQUEMPOIS Y. et LIÈVRE M., “Characterization of fiber Bragg gratings by phase-sensitive optical low coherence reflectometry”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurements, 55, 5, 2006, 1696-1703.

RAZET A. et BASTIE J., “Uncertainty evaluation in non-contact aperture area measurements”, Metrologia, 43, 2006, 361-366.

RAZET A., HOUSSIN O. et BASTIE J., “A determination of Planck’s constant from radiometric measurements”, Metrologia, 43, 2006, 367-370.

ROUGIE B. et BASTIE J., « Réalisation de la référence d’éclairement à l’Institut national de métrologie », Revue française de métrologie, 5, 2006, 31-40.

TOUAYAR O., MELLOUKI I., BEN ACHOUR Z., SIFI N., YACOUBI N. et BASTIE J., “Indirect comparison of the absolute LMR-Tunisia trap pyroelectric detector with the INM- France cryogenic absolute radiometer at 632.8 nm”, Sensors and actuators A, 132, 2006, 567-571.

VIALE P., FÉVRIER S., LEPROUX P., JAOUEN Y. et OBATON A.-F., “Modal properties of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers”, Photonics and Nanostructures;Fundamentals and Applications, 4, 2006, 116-122.


OBEIN G., « La mesure des attributs visuels de l’apparence au travers d’un exemple : le brillant », Séminaire CNAM, Pole de recherche Electronique, Systèmes Physiques, Métrologie, 17 mars 2006.

RAZET A., “Les bases de l’analyse spectrale”, 13es journées de la SFIMAR, Poitiers, France, 19-20 mai 2006.

SIMIONESCU M., SEUCAN A., BASTIE J. et ROUGIE B., “Candela realization at NIM Romania ; uncertainty estimation”, 2nd CIE Expert symposium on Measurement Uncertainty, Braunschweig, Allemagne, publication CIE x029:2006, ISBN 3 981100 21 4 8, 12-13 juin 2006.

RAZET A., « Comment mesure-t-on dans le domaine scientifique et technique ? », Université d’Eté 2006 du Havre ; Racines et héritages, facteurs d’identité européenne : normes et mesures, Le Havre, France, 3-7 juillet 2006.

ENOUF O., DUBARD J., FILTZ J.-R. et LIÈVRE M., “Development of a gloss measurement set-up for low gloss standard”, CIE Expert Symposium: Visual Appearance, Paris, France, 19-20 octobre 2006.

OBEIN, G. et VIENOT, F., “Modelling the BRDF of a series of matt to glossy black samples”, CIE Expert symposium on visual appearance, Paris, France, 19-20 octobre 2006.

COUTIN J.-M., CHANDOUL F. et BASTIE J., “GaAsP trap detector for UV measurement”, UV News, The official newsletter of the Thematic Network for Ultraviolet Measurements, 8, 2006, 39-40, 6e workshop, Davos, Suisse, 20-21 octobre 2005.

BASTIE J., “Photobiological quantities”, Séminaire CENAM - CCPR, Querétaro, Mexique, 24 octobre 2006.

BASTIE J. et GONZALES GALVAN L.P., “Radiometric and photometric measurements at the LNE-INM/CNAM”, Symposium of metrology, Mexico, Mexique, 25-27 octobre 2006.

DUBARD J., KOSMALSKI S., CHRISTIAENS F. et FILTZ J.-R., « Développement au LNE de moyens de caractérisation des simulateurs solaires ultraviolet utilisés pour la détermination des facteurs de protection solaire (SPF) en cosmétique » Colloque international CMOI, Mulhouse, France, 20-24 novembre 2006.

BASTIE J., « Les diodes électroluminescentes à la commission internationale de l'éclairage », Colloque sur les diodes électroluminescentes organisé par CIE-CNFE et AFE, Paris, France, 30 novembre 2006.

Publications and communications in the field of "Optical radiation, radiometry and photometry" by authors of the French metrology network in 2007


LITORIA M., FOWLER J., HARTMANN J., FOX N., STOCK M., RAZET A., KHELVNOY B., IKONEN E., MACHACS M. et DOYTCHINOV K., Final Report on the CCPR-S2 supplementary comparison of area measurements of apertures for radiometry, Metrologia, 44, Tech. Suppl., 2007, 02002.

OBATON A-F., LEBENBERG J., FISCHER N., GUIMIER S. et DUBARD J., “Two assessment procedures of the uncertainty on the spectral irradiance measurement for UV source calibration”, Metrologia, 44, 2007, 152-160.

SIMONOT L. et OBEIN G., Geometrical consideration in analyzing  isotropic or anisotropic surface reflection, Applied optics, 46, 14, 2007, 2615-2623.

RAZET A., HOUSSIN O. et BASTIE J., « Validation de méthodes par une constante fondamentale », Revue française de métrologie, 9, 2007, 45-48.


BRIAUDEAU S., ROUGIE B., SADLI M., RICHARD A. et COUTIN J.M., “Optical diffraction corrections in radiometric thermodynamic determination”, 10th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science (Tempmeko-2007), Lake Louise, Canada, 21-25 mai 2007.

FILTZ J.-R., VALIN T., HAMEURY J. et DUBARD J., “New Vacuum Black Body cavity for heat flux meters calibration”, 10th International Symposium on Temperature and Thermal Measurements in Industry and Science (Tempmeko-2007), Lake Louise, Canada, 21-25 mai 2007.

Piombini H., Voarino P., Sabary F., Marteau D., Dubard J., Hameury J. et Filtz J.-R., Optical Interference Coatings Topical Meeting and Tabletop Exhibit (OIC 2007), Tucson, Arizona, Etats-Unis d’Amérique, 3-7 juin 2007.

OBATON A.-F., FISCHER N. et DUBARD J., “Validation of the law of propagation of uncertainty by the Monte Carlo method to estimate the uncertainty on the UV source spectral irradiance calibration”, PTB-BIPM-Workshop on the Impact of Information Technology in Metrology, Berlin, Allemagne, 5-7 juin 2007.

COUTIN J.-M., TAYEB-CHANDOUL F. et BASTIE J., « Développement de nouvelles références radiomètriques pour améliorer les mesures de rayonnements optiques », 13e Congrès international de métrologie, Lille, France, 18-21 juin 2007.

HAMEURY J., SCOARNEC V., HAY B. et FILTZ J.-R., « Mesure des propriétés radiatives infrarouges de liquides semi-transparents - Calcul du facteur d'absorption énergétique », 13e Congrès international de métrologie, Lille, France, 18-21 juin 2007.

OBEIN G., GONZALEZ-GALVAN L. et BASTIE J., « Une nouvelle réalisation de la candela au LNE-INM/Cnam », 13e Congrès international de métrologie, Lille, France, 18-21 juin 2007.

POUSSET N., RAZET A., OBEIN G., RICHARD A. et BASTIE J., « Métrologie des diodes électroluminescentes », 13e Congrès international de métrologie, Lille, France, 18-21 juin 2007.

RAZET A., HOUSSIN O. et BASTIE J., « Validation de méthodes par une constante fondamentale », 13e Congrès international de métrologie, Lille, France, 18-21 juin 2007.

RAZET A., POUSSET N., OBEIN G., BASTIE J. et VIENOT F., « Métrologie de l’apparence », 13e Congrès international de métrologie, Lille, France, 18-21 juin 2007

ROUGIE B., « Références radiométriques pour les sources : méthode, résultat et développement », 13e Congrès international de métrologie, Lille, France, 18-21 juin 2007.

VOYER J., DUBARD J., HAMEURY J. et FILTZ J.-R., « Etalonnage en transmission spectrale de filtres pour lecteur de micro-plaque Elisa », 13e Congrès international de métrologie, Lille, France, 18-21 juin 2007.

BASTIE J., Measurements and units for photobiological and photochemical quantities, 26e Session quadriennale de la CIE, Pékin, Chine, 2-11 juillet 2007.

GOTTESMAN Y., OBATON A-F., RABUS D., RAO E. et BENKELFAT B.-E., « Nouvelle méthode d'analyse des résonateurs annulaires en vue d'applications bio-photoniques », 26e Journées nationales d’optique guidée (JNOG'07), Grenoble, France, 2-5 juillet 2007.

OBEIN G., A new realization of the Candela at the LNE-INM/Cnam, 26e Session quadriennale de la CIE, Pékin, Chine, 2-11 juillet 2007.

OBATON A.-F., HAMEL P., GABET R., JAOUËN Y., BUROV E., MÉLIN G., LIÈVRE M. et DUBARD J., “Comparative measurement of group velocity dispersion on micro-structured fibre using Optical Low Coherence Reflectometry”, OFMC (Conference on measurements of optical fibres and optoelectronics), Teddington, Royaume-Uni, 15-17 octobre 2007.

GAUDEMER J. et DUBARD J., « Incertitudes de mesure du facteur de diffusion des équipements de protection individuel de l’œil », 8e Colloque francophone du club CMOI, Arcachon, France, 19-23 novembre 2007.

OBEIN G., « Une nouvelle réalisation de la candela au LNE-INM/Cnam », Réunion de l’AFE/Division 2, Paris, France, 5 décembre 2007.