PhD abstract

This thesis deals with the characterization of antenna radiation patterns to improve the use of existing measurement systems. Two approaches are proposed in order to speed up the measurement of these radiation patterns, which is achieved by reducing the required number of field samples. The first one exploits the sparse spherical wave expansion of the field radiated by antennas. It only requires knowing the maximum electrical dimension of the antenna. The second approach exploits the antenna external geometry and the measurement surface shape in order to build numerically an expansion basis tailored to the characterization problem. For both techniques, the minimal number of required field samples and an estimation of the field acquisition time at the IETR facilities are given, showing their potentialities to speed up the antenna measurements. Besides, an optimization strategy of the antenna positioning in post-processing is proposed. This procedure improves the quality of the reconstructed antenna radiation pattern from a given measurement. All the proposed methods have been validated using numerical and experimental datasets from various antenna types, different operating frequency bands and measured in several facilities, demonstrating thereby their versatility and generality.

Key words

electromagnetism, metrology, antennas, sparse recovery, finite elements

Publications

PIQUEMAL F., "Present and future mass standards for the LNE watt balance and the future dissemination of the mass unit in France", Metrologia, 53, 2016, 1139-1153, DOI:10.1088/0026-1394/53/4/1139

PINOT P., ESPEL P., LIU Y., THOMAS M., ZIANE D., PALACIOS-RESTREPO M.-A. et PIQUEMAL F., "Static phase improvements in the LNE watt balance", Review of Scientific Instruments, 87, 2016, DOI: 10.1063/1.4964293

THOMAS M., ESPEL P., ZIANE D., PIQUEMAL F., PINOT P., JUNCAR P., SILVESTRI Z., PLIMMER M., PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., MERLET S. BEAUDOUX F., BENTOUATI D., BRUNET F., JEANJACQUOT P. et MADEC T., « Approche du LNE pour la réalisation et la mise en pratique du kilogramme dans sa nouvelle définition », Revue française de métrologie, 2017, 49-57, DOI: 10.1051/rfm/2016015

 

Communication

ESPEL P., THOMAS M., ZIANE D., PINOT P. et PIQUEMAL F., "Static Phase Improvements in the LNE watt balance", Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), Ottawa, Canada, , DOI: 10.1109/CPEM.2016.7540579, 10-15 juillet 2016.

 

Publication

THOMAS M., ZIANE D., PINOT P., KARCHER R., IMANALIEV A., PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., MERLET S., PIQUEMAL F. et ESPEL P., "A determination of the Planck constant using the LNE Kibble balance in air", Metrologia, 54, 2017, DOI: 10.1088/1681-7575/aa7882

 

Communications

BEAUDOUX F., PINOT P., ESPEL P., THOMAS M., SILVESTRI Z., ZIANE D. et PIQUEMAL F., « Dissémination en France de l’unité de masse après sa redéfinition », RFQM, Nantes, France, 27 - 30 mars 2017.

 

THOMAS M., ZIANE D., PINOT P., PIQUEMAL F. et ESPEL P., "Planck constant determinations at LNE/CNAM", KBTM2017, Beijing, République populaire de Chine, octobre 2017.

 

Publications

ALLAL D., DJORDJEVIC S., GOLDFARB R. and LOMBARDI M., “Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2018), IEEE Transactions on instrumentation and measurement, 68, 2019, 6, 8712480, 1652, DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2019.2910405.

DJORDJEVIC S., POIRIER W., SCHOPFER F. et THÉVENOT O., « Les étalons électriques quantiques », Les reflets de la physique, SFP, 62, 2019, 25-28, DOI: 10.1051/refdp/201962011.

JECKELMANN B.and PIQUEMAL F., “The elementary charge for the definition and realization of the ampere”, Annalen der Physik, 531, 2019, 5, 1800389, DOI: 10.1002/andp.201800389.

LOUARN K., CLAVEAU Y., FONTAINE C., ARNOULT A., MARIGO-LOMBART L., MASSIOT I., PIQUEMAL F., BOUNOUH A., CAVASSILAS N. and ALMUNEAU G., “Thickness limitation of band to band tunnelling process in GaAsSb/InGaAs type II tunnel junctions designed for multi-junction solar cells”, ACS Applied energy materials, , 2, 2019. 2,1149-1154, DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.8b01700

OUAMEUR M., ZIADE F. and LE BIHAN Y., “Towards a calculable standard shunt for current measurements at 10 A and up to 1 MHz”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 68, 2019, 6, 8586883, 2215-2222, DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2018.2884553.

OUAMEUR M., ZIADÉ F. and LE BIHAN Y., “Novel broadband calibration method of current shunts based on VNA, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 68, 2019, 3, 854-863, DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2018.2855499.

PHAM BUI T.D, ALLAL D., ZIADÉ F. and BERGEAULT E., “On-wafer coplanar waveguide standards for S-parameter measurements of balanced circuits up to 40 GHz”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 68, 2019, 6, 8699095, 2160-2167, DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2018.2884061.

POIRIER W., DJORDJEVIC S., SCHOPFER F. and THÉVENOT O., “The ampere and the electrical units in the quantum era, Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des sciences - Physique, 20, 2019, 1-2, 92-128, DOI: 10.1016/j.crhy.2019.02.003.

 

Communications

PIQUEMAL F., « Evolution du SI le 20 mai 2019 », Université de Strasbourg - SFP Alsace, 30 janvier 2019.

MORÁN-MEZA J., DELVALLÉE A., ALLAL D. and PIQUEMAL F., « Mesure de capacités par microscopie
micro-onde à champ proche (SMM) », 22e Forum des Microscopies à Sondes Locales, Carry-le-Rouet, France, 19-22 mars 2019.

ALLAL D., “Update on EMPIR 16NRM07 Vector SAR”, EURAMET TC-EM SC-RF&MW Experts meeting, Torrejón de Ardoz, Espagne, 9-10 avril 2019.

ALLAL D., MORÁN-MEZA J., DELVALLÉE A., PIQUEMAL F. and ZIADÉ F., “EMPIR 16ENG06 ADVENT: Update on research activities : Results from SMM and power measurements”, EURAMET TC-EM SC-RF&MW Experts meeting, Torrejón de Ardoz, Espagne, 9-10 avril 2019.

MÉZIÈRES N., FUCHS B., LE COQ, LERAT J.-M., CONTRERES R. and LE FUR G., « Caractérisation Rapide d’Antennes par Utilisation des Harmoniques Sphériques Vectorielles », 21es Journées Nationales Micro-ondes (JNM 2019), Caen, France, 14-17 mai 2019.

PHAM BUI T.D., ALLAL D., ZIADÉ F. and BERGEAULT E., « Étalons coplanaires CCPW pour la mesure des paramètres S en mode mixte”, 21es Journées Nationales Micro-ondes (JNM 2019), Caen, France, 14-17 mai 2019.

MORÁN-MEZA J., DELVALLÉE A., ALLAL D. and PIQUEMAL F., Capacitance mapping at nanoscale by scanning microwave microscopy (SMM): Metrological aspects”, European Materials Research Society - Spring Meeting 2019, Symposium D: Advances in silicon-nanoelectronics, -nanostructures and high-efficiency Si-photovoltaics, Nice, France, 27-31 mai 2019.

AMARIPADATH D., ROCHE R., BRAUN J.P., JOSEPH-AUGUSTE L., ISTRATE D., FORTUNE D. and GAO F., “Design of a versatile waveform platform for supraharmonic testing and calibration”, 25th International conference and exhibition on electricity distribution (CIRED 2019), Madrid, Spain, 3-6 June 2019.

SCHOPFER F., « Un guide ISO pour l’élaboration des normes sur la mesure des propriétés du graphène et des matériaux 2D”, 8es Rencontres annuelles en Nanométrologie – Club nanométrologie, Paris, France, 17 juin 2019.

DJORDJEVIC S., Quantum current standard based on the Josephson effect and the quantum Hall effect”, Quantum and Precision Metrology (QPM 2019), Cracovie, Pologne, 17-19 Juin 2019.

ALLAL D., “European Project EMPIR 16NRM07 Vector SAR - SAR measurement using vector probes”, BioEM 2019, Montpellier, France, 23-28 juin 2019.

AGAZAR M., FORTUNÉ D., SAADEDDINE H., GARNACHO F. and ROVIRA J., Characterisation of High Voltage Dividers for X-ray Measurements”, 21st International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering (ISH2019 Conference), Proceedings: vol. 2, ISH, Budapest, Hongrie, 26-30 août 2019.

AMARIPADATH D., ROCHE R., AUGUSTE L.J., ISTRATE D., FORTUNÉ D., BRAUN J.-P. and GAO F., Measurement and Analysis of Supraharmonic Emissions in Smart Grids”, 54th International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC 2019), Bucharest, Romania, 3-6 September 2019.

SCHOPFER F., FLEURENCE N., DELVALLÉE A., DUCOURTIEUX S., MORÁN J., PIQUEMAL F. and FELTIN N., Developing and providing reliable multi-disciplinary measurement methods for graphene and related materials”, 14th Graphene Week 2019, Helsinki, Finland, 23-27 September 2019.

PIQUEMAL F., « Evolution du SI le 20 mai 2019 », Université de Pau, 24 septembre 2019.

AGAZAR M., FORTUNÉ D., SAADEDDINE H., PERRILLAT D., ROBERT C. and CASTEIGNAU L., “Study of non-invasive instruments for the measurement of pulsed x-ray high voltage tube”, 19e Congrès interntional de métrologie (CIM 2019), Paris, France, 24-26 septembre 2019.

ALLAL D., EMPIR European project for validation of vector array SAR measurement systems”, 19e Congrès interntional de métrologie (CIM 2019), Paris, France, 24-26 septembre 2019.

ISTRATE D. and FORTUNÉ D., “Fictive power source for calibrations in railway systems”, 19e Congrès interntional de métrologie (CIM 2019), Paris, France, 24-26 septembre 2019.

SAADEDDINE H., AGAZAR M. and FORTUNÉ D., New reference systems for the calibration of HV impulses at LNE”, 19e Congrès interntional de métrologie (CIM 2019), Paris, France, 24-26 septembre 2019.

ALLAL D. and ZIADÉ F., “Calibration of on chip microwave power sensors”, European Microwave Week 2019, Paris, France, 29 sept. - 4 oct. 2019.

ZIADÉ F., Key energy figures in ICT sector and main aspect of the top-down approach adopted in the European Project in Metrology ADVENT”, European Microwave Week 2019, Paris, France, 29 sept. - 4 oct. 2019.

MORÁN-MEZA J., DELVALLÉE A., ALLAL D. and PIQUEMAL F., Metrology for capacitance measurements using Scanning Microwave Microscope”, European Microwave Week 2019, Paris, France, 29 sept. - 4 oct. 2019.

MORÁN-MEZA J., DELVALLÉE A., ALLAL D. and PIQUEMAL F., A substitution method for capacitance calibration using scanning microwave microscopy”, 12th Seminar on Quantitative Microscopy (QM) and 8th Seminar on nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods (Nanoscale 2019), Braunschweig, Germany, 15-16 October 2019.

ALLAL D., SAR measurement using vector probes and impact of Metrology on Standardization processes”, IEC TC 106 Meeting, Tokyo, Japan, 11-15 novembre 2019.

Publications

BUCHTER A., HOFFMANN J., DELVALLÉE A., BRINCIOTTI E., HAPIUK D., LICITRA C., LOUARN K., ARNOULT A., ALMUNEAU G., PIQUEMAL F., ZEIER M. and KIENBERGER F., “Scanning microwave microscopy applied to semiconducting GaAs structures”, Review of Scientific Instruments, 2018, 89, 023704, DOI: 10.1063/1.5015966.

JECKELMANN B. and PIQUEMAL F., “The elementary charge for the definition and realization of the ampere”, 2018, Annalen der Physik 2018, 531, 5, DOI: 10.1002/andp.201800389.

JOUAULT B., SCHOPFER F. and POIRIER W., “Beauty of quantum transport in Graphene”, in Epitaxial Graphene on Silicon Carbide - Modeling, Characterization And Applications (Chapitre 7), Gemma Rius et Philippe Godignon, Jenny Stanford Publishing, 2018, ISBN 9789814774208, DOI: 10.4032/9781315186146.

LOUARN K., CLAVEAU Y., MARIGO-LOMBART L., FONTAINE C., ARNOULT A., PIQUEMAL F., BOUNOUH A., CAVASSILAS N. and ALMUNEAU G., “Effect of low and staggered gap quantum wells inserted in GaAs tunnel junctions”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2018, 51, 14, DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aab1de.

OUAMEUR M., ZIADE F. and LE BIHAN Y., “Novel broadband calibration method of current shunts based on VNA”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 2018, 68, 3, 854–863, DOI: 10.1109/tim.2018.2855499.

OUAMEUR M., ZIADE F. and LE BIHAN Y., “Towards a calculable standard shunt for current measurements at 10 A and up to 1 MHz”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 2018, 68, 6, 2215-2222, DOI: 10.1109/tim.2018.2884553.

 

Communications

BRUN-PICARD J., DJORDJEVIC S., POIRIER W. and SCHOPFER F., “Graphene for quantum electrical metrology and the revised International System of Units SI”, ImagineNano/GraphIn 2018, Bilbao, Spain, 13-15 mars 2018.

SCHOPFER F., “Graphene for quantum electrical metrology and the revised International System of units SI”, ImagineNano/GraphIn 2018, Bilbao, Spain, 13-15 mars 2018.

DELVALLÉE A., MORAN J., PIQUEMAL F. et ALLAL D., « Evaluation d’une méthode d’étalonnage pour la mesure de capacités par SMM », Forum des microscopies à sonde locale, La Rochelle, France, 19-23 mars 2018.

BRUN-PICARD J., DAGHER R., MICHON A., JOUAULT B., MAILLY D., POIRIER W. and SCHOPFER F., “Exploring the electron transport in quantum Hall devices based on graphene grown by CVD on SiC to improve the electrical resistance standard”, International Symposium on Quantum Hall Effects and Related Topics (QHE 2018), Max Planck Institute, Stuttgart, Germany, June 27-29, 2018.

PIQUEMAL F., “Quantum electrical standards: Key role in the revision of the SI”, Measurement at the Crossroads (MAC 2018) - History, philosophy and sociology of measurements, Université Paris Diderot, Paris, France, 27-29 juin 2018.

ALLAL D., MORAN-MEZA J., DELVALLÉE A., KHAN M.S. and PIQUEMAL F., “Nano-microscale electrical characterization of copper thru silicon vias in 3D staked integrated circuits”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2018), Paris, France, 8-13 juillet 2018, DOI: 10.1109/CPEM.2018.8501198.

AMARIPADATH D., ROCHE R., JOSEPH-AUGUSTE L., ISTRATE D., FORTUNE D., BRAUN J.P. and GAO F., “Measurement of supraharmonic emissions (2 – 150 kHz) in real grid scenarios”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2018), Paris, France, 8-13 juillet 2018, DOI: 10.1109/CPEM.2018.8501185.

AZIB J., BRUN-PICARD J., SCHOPFER F., POIRIER W. and DJORDJEVIC S., “Towards an improved programmable quantum current generator”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2018), Paris, France, 8-13 juillet 2018, DOI: 10.1109/CPEM.2018.8501115.

BRUN-PICARD J., DAGHER R., MAILLY D., NACHAWATY A., JOUAULT B., MICHON A., POIRIER W. and SCHOPFER F., “Quantum Hall resistance standard in Graphene grown by CVD on SiC: State-of-the-Art of the Experimental Mastery”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2018), Paris, France, 8-13 juillet 2018, DOI: 10.1109/CPEM.2018.8501087.

GIORDANO D., CLARKSON P., GARNACHO F., VAN DEN BROM H.E., DONADIO L., FERNANDEZ-CARDADOR A., FILIPPINI N., GALLO D., ISTRATE D., DE SANTIAGO LAPORTE A., MARISCOTTI A., MESTER C., NAVARRO N., PORZIO M., ROSCOE A. and ŠÍRA M., “Accurate measurements of energy, efficiency and power quality in the electric railway system”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2018), Paris, France, 8-13 juillet 2018, DOI: 10.1109/CPEM.2018.8500811.

OUAMEUR M., ZIADE F. and LE BIHAN Y., “Design and modelling of a shunt for current measurements at 10 A and up to 1 MHz: a theoretical approach”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2018), Paris, France, 8-13 juillet 2018, DOI: 10.1109/CPEM.2018.8500844.

OUAMEUR M., ZIADE F. and LE BIHAN Y., “Theoretical basis of a high frequency matching approach to calibrate current shunt standards up to 1 MHz”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2018), Paris, France, 8-13 juillet 2018, DOI: 10.1109/CPEM.2018.8501135.

OUAMEUR M., ZIADE F. and LE BIHAN Y., “Calibration of current shunt standards in the megahertz region”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2018), Paris, France, 8-13 juillet 2018, DOI: 10.1109/CPEM.2018.8501255.

POIRIER W., LEPRAT D., SCHOPFER F., “Towards 10-10 accurate resistance bridge at LNE”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2018), Paris, France, 8-13 juillet 2018, DOI: 10.1109/CPEM.2018.8501068.

DJORDJEVIC S., SCHOPFER F. and POIRIER W., Advances in quantum electrical standards, 9e Colloque annuel du GDR Ingénierie Quantique, des Aspects Fondamentaux aux Applications (IQFA 2018), Montpellier, France, 14-16 novembre 2018.

POIRIER W., « L’ampère et les unités électriques à l’ère quantique », Cycle de Conférences du LNE « les jeudis de la mesure », Paris, France, 29 novembre 2018.

POIRIER W., « L’ampère à l’ère quantique », Conférence-débat Le nouveau système international d’unités (SI) fondé sur un choix de constantes physiques fondamentales de l’Académie des Sciences, Paris, France, 4 décembre 2018.

DJORDJEVIC S., SCHOPFER F. and POIRIER W., Advances in quantum electrical standards, Workshop on Use-cases from quantum technologies for sensing and metrology, Grenoble, France, 10-11 décembre 2018.

SCHOPFER F., DJORDJEVIC S. and POIRIER W., Quantum electrical metrology and the Revised International System of Units – SI, Séminaire du Master2 Matière Condensée de l’Université Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble, France, 18 décembre 2018.

SCHOPFER F. and POIRIER W., Exploring the electron transport in quantum Hall devices based on graphene grown by CVD on SiC to improve the electrical resistance standard”, International Symposium on Quantum Hall Effects and Related Topics (QHE 2018), MPI, Stuttgart, Allemagne, 27-29 juin 2018.

AZIB J., DJORDJEVIC S., BRUN-PICARD J., SCHOPFER F. and POIRIER W., “Towards an improved Programmable Quantum Current Generator”, GDR 2426 Physique quantique mésoscopique – Session plénière 2018, Aussois, France, 3-6 décembre 2018.

DJORDJEVIC S., AZIB J., BRUN-PICARD J., SCHOPFER F. and POIRIER W., Towards and improved programmable quantum current generator, GDR Physique quantique mésoscopique à Aussois du 3 au 6 décembre 2018.

MORÁN-MEZA J., DELVALLÉE A., ALLAL D. and PIQUEMAL F., “Capacitance measurements at nanoscale with scanning microwave microscopy (SMM)”, Congrès national C’nano 2018, Toulon, France, 11-13 décembre 2018.

 

Publications

AHMAD S., CHARLES M., ALLAL D., NEGI P.S. and OJHA V.N., “Realization of 2.4mm coaxial microcalorimeter system as national standard of microwave power from 1 MHz to 50 GHz”, Measurement, 2018, 116, 106-113, online : 28 October 2017, DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.10.063.

DJOKIĆ B., GHOHROODI-GHAMSARI B., PIQUEMAL F. and ALLAL D., “Guest Editorial Special Section on the Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016)”, IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas., Special Issue CPEM 2016, 2017, 66, 6, DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2017.2695678.

KHAN M.S., SÉRON O., THUILLIER G., THÉVENOT O., GOURNAY P. and PIQUEMAL F., “Development of a programmable standard of ultra-low capacitance values”, Rev Sci Instrum., 2017, 88, 5, 055109, DOI: 10.1063/1.4983337.

LOUARN K., CLAVEAU Y., HAPIUK D., FONTAINE C., ARNOULT A., TALIERCIO T., LICITRA C., PIQUEMAL F., BOUNOUH A., CAVASSILAS N. and ALMUNEAU G., “Multiband corrections for the semi-classical simulation of interband tunneling in GaAs tunnel junctions”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 2017, 50, 38, 385109, DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aa804e.

PIQUEMAL F., JECKELMANN B., CALLEGARO L., HALLSTROM J., JANSSEN J.T., MELCHER J., RIETVELD G., WRIGHT P., ZEIER M. and ZIEGNER U., “Metrology in Electricity and Magnetism: EURAMET activities today and tomorrow”, Metrologia, 2017, 54, 5, R1–R24, DOI: 10.1088/1681-7575/aa7cae.

SCHURR J., FLETCHER N., GOURNAY P., THÉVENOT O., OVERNEY F., JOHNSON L., XIE R. and DIERIKX E., “Final report of the supplementary comparison EURAMET.EM-S31 comparison of capacitance and capacitance ratio”, Metrologia, 2017, 54, Tech. Supp., DOI: 10.1088/0026-1394/54/1A/01016.

 

Communications

CHARLES M., « Caractérisation de la forme d’onde de signaux dynamiques ultra-rapides (>100 GHz) par échantillonnage électro-optique », Plénière du Groupe thématique Télécom, Université Paris-Est de Créteil, France, 23 janvier 2017.

BUCHTER A. et al., “Scanning Microwave Microscopy applied to dopant density extraction”, German Physical Society Spring Meeting 2017, Dresden, Germany, March 19-24, 2017.

PHAM BUI T.D., ALLAL D., ZIADÉ F. and BERGEAULT E., “Calibration standards for on-wafer mixed-mode S-parameter measurement”, Keysight European Metrology Workshop, Prague, Czech Republic, 6-7 avril 2017.

PHAM BUI T.D., ALLAL D., ZIADÉ F. and BERGEAULT E., « Conception d’étalons coplanaires couplées pour la méthode d’étalonnage Multimode TRL », XXes Journées Nationales Micro-ondes, Saint-Malo, France, 16-19 mai 2017.

BUCHTER A. et al. “EMRP-SolCell: Scanning Microwave Microscopy applied to semiconducting GaAs structures”, 2017 Spring Meeting (e-MRS), Strasbourg, France, May 22-26, 2017.

ALLAL D., « Métrologie dans le domaine THz Etalons et méthodes de référence », Journée-pilote sur les applications industrielles des nanotechnologies du THz et MIR du GDR Nanoteramir, Campus Gérard-Mégie du CNRS, Paris, France, 10 juillet 2017.

AMARIPADATH D., ROCHE R., JOSEPH-AUGUSTE L., ISTRATE D., NDILIMABAKA H., BRAUN J-P. and GAO F., “Power quality disturbances on smart grids: overview and real grid measurements”, 52nd International Universities Power Engineering Conference (UPEC 2017), Heraklion, Greece, August 28-31, 2017.

ELG A-P., LINDGREN M., HEDEKVIST P.O., EBENHAG S.C., HÄLLSTRÖM J., ISTRATE D., KIIVERI P., NIEWCZAS P. and FUSIEK G., “A Metrology grade fibre optical current sensor”, 20th International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering (ISH 2017), Buenos Aires, Argentina, August 28 – September 1, 2017.

ALLAL D. and LITWIN A., “Establishing of traceability for waveguide S parameter measurements at LNE”, 18th International Metrology Congress (CIM 2017), Paris, France, 19-21 septembre 2017.

ALLAL D., DELVALLÉE A., KHAN M.S. and PIQUEMAL F, “Low frequency and radiofrequency electrical metrology applied to 3D stacked circuits”, 18th International Metrology Congress (CIM 2017), Paris, France, 19-21 septembre 2017.

CHARLES M., « Propriétés électromagnétiques matériaux par la mesure des paramètres S sur ligne de transmission », 18th International Metrology Congress (CIM 2017), Paris, France, 19-21 septembre 2017.

DELVALLÉE A., KHAN M.S., ALLAL D. and PIQUEMAL F., Electrical characterization of multi-junction solar cells by scanning probe microscopy (SMM and Rrsiscope)”, 18th International Metrology Congress (CIM 2017), Paris, France, 19-21 septembre 2017.

PHAM BUI T.D., ALLAL D., ZIADÉ F. and BERGEAULT E., “Designing coupled coplanar waveguide standards for on-wafer mixed-mode S-parameter measurement”, 18th International Metrology Congress (CIM 2017), Paris, France, 19-21 septembre 2017.

LOUARN K.et al., “Pseudomorphic and Metamorphic (Al)GaAsSb/(Al)InGaAs Tunnel Junctions for GaAs Based Multi-Junction Solar Cells”, European photovoltaic solar energy conference and exhibition (EU PVSEC), Amsterdam, Pays-Bas, Septembre 2017.

ARNOULT A. et al. « Nouvelles techniques instrumentales liées à l’épitaxie et nouveaux systèmes », Conférence plénière du GDR PULSE, Paris, France, 2-5 octobre 2017.

LOUARN K. et al., « Jonctions tunnel AlGaAsSb/AlGaInAs accordées et relaxées sur substrat GaAs pour les applications photovoltaïques », Conférence plénière du GDR PULSE, Paris, France, 2-5 octobre 2017.

OUAMEUR M., ZIADÉ F. and LE BIHAN Y., “Design and Modelling of a 10 A Current Shunt for Measurements  up to 1 MHz”, Contact Persons EURAMET TC-EM Meeting, Caparica, Portugal, 3-4 octobre 2017.

DELVALLÉE A., KHAN M.S., MORÁN-MEZA J., LOUARN K., ALLAL D. and PIQUEMAL F., Electrical characterization of multi-junction solar cells by scanning probe microscopy (SMM and Resiscope)”, Contact Persons EURAMET TC-EM Meeting, Caparica, Portugal, 3-4 octobre 2017.

BRUN-PICARD J., DAGHER R., MICHON A., JOUAULT B., MAILLY D., POIRIER W. and SCHOPFER F., “Exploring the electron transport in quantum Hall devices based on graphene grown by CVD on SiC to improve the electrical resistance standard”, Colloque annuel du GDR Graphene & Co, Aussois, France, 15-19 octobre 2017.

BRUN-PICARD J., DJORDJEVIC S., POIRIER W. and SCHOPFER F., Towards a quantum electrical SI multimeter”, Réunion de lancement du DIM SIRTEQ, IOGS Palaiseau, France, 20 octobre 2017.

MORAN J., DELVALLÉE A., KHAN M.S. et PIQUEMAL F., « Etude de TSV (through silicon via) par microscopie champ proche à sonde microonde », 7es rencontres annuelles du club nanoMétrologie, Lyon, France, 5 décembre 2017.

KHAN M.S., DELVALLÉE A., LOUARN K., MORAN J., ALLAL D., ARNOULT A., ALMUNEAU G., PIQUEMAL F., « Caractérisation des propriétés électriques de matériaux III-V par microscopie à sonde microonde (SMM) pour les cellules solaires multi-jonction », Journées Nationales du Photovoltaïque (JNPV 2017), Dourdan, France, 5-8 décembre 2017.

LOUARN K., FONTAINE C., ARNOULT A., CLAVEAU Y., MARIGO LOMBART L., MASSIOT I., COLIN J., CORNILLE C., CAVASSILAS N., PIQUEMAL F., BOUNOUH A. et ALMUNEAU G., « Tampon graduel et jonction tunnel de type II relaxés sur GaAs pour sous cellules solaires métamorphiques à 1 eV », Journées Nationales du Photovoltaïque (JNPV 2017), Dourdan, France, 5-8 décembre 2017.

LOUARN K., CLAVEAU Y., FONTAINE C., ARNOULT A., PIQUEMAL F., BOUNOUH A., CAVASSILAS N. et ALMUNEAU G., « Modélisation semi classique du courant tunnel interbandes dans les jonctions tunnel GaAs », Journées Nationales du Photovoltaïque (JNPV 2017), Dourdan, France, 5-8 décembre 2017.

MASSIOT I., LOUARN K., FONTAINE C., AZAIZIA S., ARNOULT A., CORNILLE C., COLIN J., BOUNOUH A., BALOCCHI A., CARRÈRE H., PIQUEMAL F. et ALMUNEAU G., « Comparaison d'absorbeurs à 1 eV à base de nitrure dilué accordés en maille sur GaAs: GaInAsN, GaAsSbN et GaInAsN(Bi) », Journées Nationales du Photovoltaïque (JNPV 2017), Dourdan, France, 5-8 décembre 2017.

Publications

ALLAL D., “Noise in waveguide between 18 GHz and 26.5 GHz”, Metrologia, 2016, 53, Techn. Suppl., 01001, DOI: 10.1088/0026-1394/53/1A/01001.

BRUN-PICARD J., DJORDJEVIC S., LEPRAT D., SCHOPFER F. and POIRIER W., “Practical quantum realization of the Ampere from the elementary charge”, Physical Review X, 2016, 6, 041051, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041051.

GAUTIER B., CHRETIEN P., AGUIR K., HOUZE F., SCHNEEGANS O., HOFFMANN J., CHEVALIER N., BOROWIK L., DERESMES D., GOURNAY P., MAILLOT P. and PIQUEMAL F., « Techniques de mesure de grandeurs électriques adaptées aux nanocircuits », Revue des Techniques de l’Ingénieur, 2016, R1084, TI/r1084 : TI/r1084.

GUERRIERI J., CODER J., MACREYNOLDS K., TAMURA D., GENTLE D.G., BEARDMORE A., EIO C., BUDOVSKY I, JI Y., WARNER F.M., WEI-LONG W., DONGLIN M., DRAŽIL K., LE SAGE Y., ALLAL D., HIROSE M., KUROKAWA S., KOMIYAMA K., SERGEY K., SERGEY N., KANG J.-S., KANG N.-W., FAST L., KARLSSON K., CARLSSON J., PYTHOUD F., ÇAKIR S., CETINTAS M., “CCEM key comparison CCEM.RF-K23.F”, Metrologia, 2016, 53, Techn. Suppl., 01003, DOI: 10.1088/0026-1394/53/1A/01003.

KAZEMIPOUR A., KLEINE-OSTMANN T., SCHRADER T., ALLAL D., CHARLES M., ZILBERTI L., BORSERO M., BOTTAUSCIO O. and CHIAMPI M., “Safety Checkpoints”, IEEE Microwave Magazine, 2016, 17, 6, DOI: 10.1109/MMM.2016.2538514.

LOUARN K., FONTAINE C., ARNOULT A., OLIVIÉ F., LACOSTE G., PIQUEMAL F., BOUNOUH A. and ALMUNEAU G., “Modelling of interband transitions in GaAs tunnel diode”, Semicondutor Science and Technology, 2016, 06LT01, DOI: 10.1088/0268-1242/31/6/06LT01.

PIQUEMAL F., “The electrical connection”, Nature Physics, 2016, 12, 284, DOI: 10.1038/nphys3683.

ZIADÉ F., KOKALJ M., OUAMEUR M., PINTER B., BÉLIÈRES D., POLETAEFF A. and ALLAL D., « Improvement of LISN measurement accuracy based on calculable adapters”, IEEE Transaction Instrument and Measurement, 2016, 65, 2, DOI: 10.1109/TIM.2015.2479107.

Communications

ALLAL D., PIQUEMAL F., DELVALLÉE A., ZIADÉ F., POLLAKOWSKI B. and CUENAT A., Metrology for manufacturing 3D stacked integrated circuits”, Nanoscale 2016, Wroclaw, Pologne, 9-11 mars 2016.

DELVALLÉE A., LOUARN K., ALMUNEAU G. and PIQUEMAL F., Scanning Microwave Microscopy characteriation of multi-junction solar cells (MJSC)”, Nanoscale 2016, Wroclaw, Pologne, 9-11 mars 2016.

SCHOPFER F., “An ideal and practical quantum Hall resistance standard in graphene devices”, APS March Meeting 2016, Baltimore, Etats-Unis, 14 au 18 mars 2016.

POIRIER W., Performances of convenient quantum Hall resistance standards in graphene devices”, Graphene 2016, Genova, Italie, 19-22 avril 2016.

DELVALLÉE A., LOUARN K., HAPIUK D., LICITRA C., BARNES J.P., ALMUNEAU G. and PIQUEMAL F., Improvement of high efficiency solar cell: collection of accurate data by SMM for the simulation”, EMRS Spring Meeting 2016, Lille, France, 2-6 mai 2016.

LOUARN K., FONTAINE C., ARNOULT A., OLIVIÉ F., LACOSTE G., PIQUEMAL F., DELVALLEE A., BOUNOUH A. and ALMUNEAU G., « Fabrication, caractérisation et simulation d’hétérojonctions tunnel et d’un absorbeur à 1eV à base de semiconducteurs III-V pour les cellules solaires multi-jonctions à haut rendement », 15es Journées Nano, Micro et Optoélectronique (JNMO), Issambres, France, 30 mai - 1er juin 2016.

PIQUEMAL F., « Une version 2.0 du SI en 2018: un rôle majeur de la métrologie électrique quantique », Les Midis Minatec, Grenoble, France, 10 juin 2016.

SCHOPFER F., An ideal and practical quantum Hall resistance standard in graphene devices”, Graphene Week 2016, Varsovie, Pologne, 13-17 juin 2016.

BRUN-PICARD J., « L’effet hall quantique pour la Métrologie », Journée Doctorants 2A 2016 EDPIF, Paris, France, 17 juin 2016.

ALLAL D., ZIADÉ F. and HUDLICKA M., Simulation of calibration standards and VNA calibration in differential mode”, 6th European ANAMET Seminar, Teddington, United Kingdom, 28 juin 2016.

OUAMEUR M., ZIADÉ F. and LE BIHAN Y., « Conception, modélisation et étalonnage d'un shunt pour la mesure de courant à 10 A et 1 MHz », Journée Doctorants 2A 2016 Centrale-Supelec, Paris, France, 7 juillet 2016.

ALLAL D., LITWIN A., VINCENT P. and ZIADÉ F., Vector network analyzer comparison up to 110 GHz”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), Ottawa, Canada, July10-15, 2016.

BRUN-PICARD J., DJORDJEVIC S., LEPRAT D., SCHOPFER F. and POIRIER W., “A quantum current generator: a practical quantum realization of the ampere from the electron charge”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), Ottawa, Canada, July10-15, 2016.

CHARLES M., LE SAGE Y. and LERAT J.M., “S parameters measurement of antennas under thermal stress”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), Ottawa, Canada, July10-15, 2016.

EIØ C., ALLAL D., HUERLIMANN P., RUEFENACHT J. and ZINAL S., “Coaxial Measurement Comparison up to 65 GHz in 1.85 mm Line”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), Ottawa, Canada, July10-15, 2016.

ISTRATE D., ETIENNE R., DUBARD J., LITWIN A. and ENOUF O., “Determination of the Verdet Constant of Low Birefringence Single-Mode Optical Fiber”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), Ottawa, Canada, July10-15, 2016.

KHAN M.-S., SÉRON O., THUILLIER G. and THÉVENOT O., “Development of a programmable small capacitance standard at LNE”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), Ottawa, Canada, July10-15, 2016.

RIBEIRO-PALAU R., LAFONT F., BRUN-PICARD J., KAZAZIS D., MICHON A., COUTURAUD O., CONSEJO C., CHASSAGNE T., ZIELINSKI M., PORTAIL M., JOUAULT B., SCHOPFER F. and POIRIER W., “Convenient Graphene-Based Quantum Hall Resistance Standards”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), Ottawa, Canada, July10-15, 2016.

THÉVENOT O., THUILLIER G., SINDJUI R., KHAN M.S., SÉRON O. and PIQUEMAL F., “Progress report on the determination of RK at LNE”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), Ottawa, Canada, July10-15, 2016.

ZIADÉ F., HUDLICKA M., SALTER M., PAVLÍÈEK T. and ALLAL D., “Uncertainty Evaluation of Balanced S Parameter Measurements”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), Ottawa, Canada, July10-15, 2016.

ZIADÉ F., KOKALJ M. and PINTER B., “Impedance measurements up to 13 MHz”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), Ottawa, Canada, July10-15, 2016.

ZIADÉ F., LITWIN A., VINCENT DROUART P., LEPRAT D. and ALLAL D., Traceable type N calibration kit: DC to 1 GHz, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), Ottawa, Canada, July10-15, 2016.

ZINAL S., ALLAL D. and SALTER M., “Comparison of Calibration Methods for Multiport VNA Measurements up to 67 GHz”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), Ottawa, Canada, July10-15, 2016.

BRUN-PICARD J., RIBEIRO-PALAU R., LAFONT F., KAZAZIS D., MICHON A., CHEYNIS F., COUTURAUD O., CONSEJO C., JOUAULT B., POIRIER W. and SCHOPFER F., “An ideal and practical quantum Hall resistance standard in graphene devices”, 5th International Symposium on Graphene Devices (ISGD-5), Brisbane, Australia, July 11-14, 2016.

LOUARN K., FONTAINE C., ARNOULT A., OLIVIÉ F., LACOSTE G., PIQUEMAL F., BOUNOUH A. and ALMUNEAU G., Fabrication, characterization and simulation of GaAs tunnel junction and development of type II tunnel heterojunction for multi-junction solar cells applications”, 19th International Conference on Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE 2016), Montpellier, 4-9 septembre 2016.

LOUARN K., CHANTAL C., ARNOULT A., HAPIUK D., LICITRA C., TALIERCIO T., CLAVEAU Y., OLIVIE F., CAVASSILAS N., PIQUEMAL F., BOUNOUH A. and ALMUNEAU G., “Type II heterojunction tunnel diodes based on GaAs for multi-junction solar cells: Fabrication, characterization and simulation”, IEEE Nanotechnology Materials and Devices Conference (NMDC), Toulouse, France, 9-12 octobre 2016.

BRUN-PICARD J., DJORDJEVIC S., LEPRAT D., SCHOPFER F. and POIRIER W., Electrical metrology in the new SI: towards a universal quantum generator/multimeter”, Séminaire CEA/SPEC, Saclay, France, 19 octobre 2016.

BRUN-PICARD J., Quantum Hall resistance standard in graphene devices under relaxed experimental conditions”, Ecole de physique Mesoscopique du GDR MESO, Cargèse, 31 octobre - 12 novembre 2016.

DELVALLÉE A., KHAN M.S., LOUARN K., ALLAL D. and PIQUEMAL F., « Caractérisation électrique de cellules solaires multi-jonctions par microscopie à sondes locales (SMM et Resiscope) », 6es Rencontres annuelles du Club Nanométrologie, Paris, France, 1er décembre 2016.

BRUN-PICARD J., DJORDJEVIC S., LEPRAT D., SCHOPFER F. and POIRIER W., “Practical quantum realization of the Ampere from the elementary charge”, 2016 Annual Meeting of GDR2426 Mesoscopic Quantum Physics, Aussois, France, 5-8 décembre 2016.

ALLAL D., “14IND07 3D Stack, Metrology for manufacturing 3D stacked integrated circuits”, Workshop on 3D-Stacked IC Metrology, IMEC Louvin, Belgique, 15 décembre 2016.

Publications

AGAZAR M. and SAADEDDINE H., “Characterisation of combined High Voltage and high current sensors with very low output voltages”, Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering (ISH 2019), Németh B. Eds, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 599, Springer, 2020, 1257-1265, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-31680-8_120.

AGAZAR M., FORTUNÉ D., SAADEDDINE H., GARNACHO F. and ROVIRA J., “Characterisation of High Voltage Dividers for X-ray Measurements”, Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering (ISH 2019), Németh B. Eds, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 599, Springer, 2020, 929-940, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-31680-8_90.

ALLAL D., LIU Z., COX M. and WIART J., “Discrepancies of measured SAR between traditional and fast measuring systems”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2020, 17, 6, 2111, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17062111.

BLANC I., “Bilateral comparison report of DC resistance (1 mΩ, 100 Ω and 100 MΩ) between LNE (France) and KIM-LIPI (Indonesia)”, Metrologia, 2020, 57, 1A Techn. Suppl., 01007, DOI: 10.1088/0026-1394/57/1A/01007.

BLANC I., SARDJONO H. and SYAHADI M., “Supplementary comparison EURAMET EM-S41 bilateral comparison of DC voltage reference standards (1,018 V and 10 V) (EURAMET.EM-S41)”, Metrologia, 2020, 57, 1A Techn. Suppl., 01014, DOI: 10.1088/0026-1394/57/1A/01014.

COUEDO F., AMARI P., FEUILLET-PALMA C., ULYSSE C., SRIVASTAVA Y.K., SINGH R., NICOLAS BERGEAL N. and LESUEUR J., “Dynamic properties of high-Tc superconducting nano-junctions made with a focused helium ion beam”, Scientific Reports, 2020, 10, 1, 10256, DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-66882-1.

GREGORY A.P., QUELEVER K., ALLAL D. and JAWAD O., “Validation of a broadband tissue-equivalent liquid for SAR measurement and monitoring of its dielectric properties for use in a sealed phantom”, Sensors, 2020, 20, 10, 2956, DOI: 10.3390/s20102956.

HÄLLSTRÖM J., ELG A.-P., HAVUNENE J. and GARNACHO F., (Others participants: AGAZAR M., MEISNER J., ROCCATO P., MEREV A., WAKIMOTO T., ZHAO W., LI Y., DIAZ R., PARKS H. and DUBROVSKAYA T.), “Supplementary comparison EURAMET.EM-S42, comparison of lightning impulse (LI) reference measuring systems”, Metrologia, 2021 (on line 17Dec2020), 58, 1A Techn. Suppl., 01001, DOI: 10.1088/0026-1394/58/1A/01001.

ISTRATE D., AMARIPADATH D., TOUTAIN E., ROCHE R. and GAO F., “Traceable measurements of harmonic (2 to 150) kHz emissions in smart grids: uncertainty calculation”, Journal of Sensors and Sensor Systems, 2020, 9, 2, 375–381, DOI: 10.5194/jsss-9-375-2020.

ISTRATE D., KHAMLICHI A., SOCCALINGAME S., ROVIRA D., FORTUNÉ D., SIRA M., SIMON P. and GARNACHO F. “Laboratory Calibration of Energy Measurement Systems (EMS) under AC Distorted Waveforms”, Sensors, 2020, 20, 21, 6301, DOI: 10.3390/s20216301.

MÉZIÈRES N., FUCHS B., LE COQ L., LERAT J.-M., CONTRERES R. and LE FUR G., “Fast antenna characterization improvement by pattern rotations”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 2020, DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2020.3031479.

MÉZIÈRES N., FUCHS B., LE COQ L., LERAT J-M., CONTRERES R. and LE FUR G., “On the application of sparse spherical harmonic expansion for fast antenna far-field measurements”, IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, 2020, 19, 5, 746-750, DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2020.2978170.

MORAN-MEZA J., DELVALLÉE A., ALLAL D. and PIQUEMAL F., “A substitution method for nanoscale capacitance calibration using scanning microwave microscopy”, Measurement Science and Technology, 2020, 31, 7, (NanoScale 2019), 074009, DOI: 10.1088/1361-6501/ab82c1.

Communications

SCHOPFER F., Quantum electrical metrology and the revised International System of units – SI, Ecole doctorale de physique de Grenoble - M2 Matière Quantique, 28 janvier 2020.

ISTRATE D., AMARIPADATH D., TOUTAIN E., ROCHE R. and GAO F., “Traceable measurements of harmonic (2 – 150 kHz) emissions in smart grids”, Sensor and Measurement Science International (SMSI 2020), System of Units and Metrological Infrastructure, Nuremberg, Germany, 22-25 juin 2020, Online event, Proceedings: DOI: 10.5162/SMSI2020/E3.2.

AGAZAR M. and OUAMEUR M., “Compensated high input impedance stage for the measurements of four terminals resistors up to 20 kHz”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), Joint NCSLI/CPEM 2020, 24-28 August 2020, Virtual meeting, Proceedings DOI: 10.1109/CPEM49742.2020.9191846.

CALLEGARO L., SCHOPFER F., THÉVENOT O., MICHON A. et al., “The EMPIR Project GIQS: Graphene Impedance Quantum Standard”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), Joint NCSLI/CPEM 2020, 24-28 August 2020, Virtual meeting, Proceedings DOI: 10.1109/CPEM49742.2020.9191743.

CROTTI G., van den BROM H.E., MOHNS E., TINARELLI R., LUISO M., STYBLIKOVA R., AGAZAR M., CAYCI H., MAZZA P., MEYER J. and ALMUTAIRI M., “Measurement methods and procedures for assessing accuracy of instrument transformers for power quality measurements”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), Joint NCSLI/CPEM 2020, 24-28 August 2020, Virtual meeting, Proceedings DOI: 10.1109/CPEM49742.2020.9191698.

DJORDJEVIC S., POIRIER W., DRUNG D. and GÖTZ M., “Comparison of the Programmable Quantum Current Generator and an Ultrastable Low-noise Current Amplifier”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), Joint NCSLI/CPEM 2020, 24-28 August 2020, Virtual meeting, Proceedings DOI: 10.1109/CPEM49742.2020.9191863.

KAZEMIPOUR A., HOFFMANN J., WOLLENSACK M., ALLAL D., HUDLICKA M., RUEFENAC J., STALDER D. and ZEIER M., “VNA-based material characterization in THz domain without classic calibration and time-gating”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), Joint NCSLI/CPEM 2020, 24-28 August 2020, Virtual meeting, Proceedings DOI: 10.1109/CPEM49742.2020.9191818.

KHAN M.S., AGAZAR M. and LE BIHAN Y., “Development of a standard measuring system for high-voltage nanosecond pulse measurements”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), Joint NCSLI/CPEM 2020, 24-28 August 2020, Virtual meeting, Proceedings DOI: 10.1109/CPEM49742.2020.9191925.

PHAM BUI T.D., ALLAL D., ZIADÉ F. and BERGEAULT E., “Nonlinear uncertainty propagation of on-wafer mixed-mode S parameter measurements using Multimode-TRL calibration”, CPEM 2020 du 24 au 28 août 2020, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), Joint NCSLI/CPEM 2020, 24-28 August 2020, Virtual meeting, Proceedings DOI: 10.1109/CPEM49742.2020.9191841.

THEVENOT O., IMANALIEV A., DOUGDAG K. and PIQUEMAL F., “Progress report on the LNE Thompson- Lampard Calculable Capacitor microwave microscope”, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), Joint NCSLI/CPEM 2020, 24-28 August 2020, Virtual meeting, Proceedings DOI: 10.1109/CPEM49742.2020.9191720.

SCHOPFER F., Quantum electrical metrology: revised SI and perspective from QT - The quantum Hall effect”, Ecole doctorale de physique de Grenoble - M2 Matière Quantique, 6 octobre 2020.

MEZIERES N., FUCHS B., LE COQ L., LERAT J.M., CONTRERES R. and LE FUR G., “Application and improvement of fast antenna characterisation via sparse spherical harmonic expansion”, 42nd Annual Meeting and Symposium of the Antenna Measurement Techniques Association (AMTA 2020), 2-5 novembre 2020, Online meeting: https://amta2020.vfairs.com/en/.

ELG A.P., GARNACHO F., AGAZAR M., MEISNER J., MEREV A., HOUTZAGER E., HAELLSTROEM J., LAHTI K., MIER ESCURRA C., PLATERO C.A., MICAND T., STEINER T. and VOSS A., “Research project EMPIR 19ENG02 Future Energy”, VDE Hochspannungstechnik 2020, 9-11 November 2020, Online Event, Proceedings: ETG-Fb. 162, e-book: ISBN 978-3-8007-5355-0.

MEISNER J., GOCKENBACH E., SAADEDDINE H., HAVUNEN J., SCHICHLER U., ELG A.P., GARNACHO F., ROCCATO P.E., MEREV A., LAHTI K., BACKHAUS K., ORREA A. and STEINER T., “Support for standardisation of high voltage testing with composite and combined wave shapes”, VDE Hochspannungstechnik 2020, 9-11 November 2020, Online Event, Proceedings: ETG-Fb. 162, e-book: ISBN 978-3-8007-5355-0.

GARNACHO F., ROVIRA J., KHAMLICHI A., SIMÓN P., GARCÍA T. and ISTRATE D., “Calibration set-up for energy measuring systems installed in AC railway systems”, IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (IEEE VPPC 2020), 18 Nov – 16 Dec. 2020, Gijon, Spain, Online Event.

PhD abstract

The comparison of electrical quantities expressed in units of the International System of Units (SI) and the same quantities generated from quantum effects is a direct way of determining physical constants. The determination of the von Klitzing constant (quantum of resistance) from a calculable capacitor is a part of this process. The last determination of this constant was conducted at LNE in 2000 with an uncertainty of 5×10-8. To achieve a target uncertainty of 1×10-8, the LNE decided to build a new standard capacitor and improve the associated measurement chain. The work presented here is implemented in the framework of the design/amelioration and the characterization of the measurement chain leading to the relative uncertainty of 1×10-8. Exploratory studies were also conducted about the possible partial or full automation of elements of the measurement chain.

Key words

coaxial AC bridges for impedance comparison, standard transformers, metrology, electricity, instrumentation

PhD abstract

Multi-Jonction Solar Cells (MJSCs) are leading the way of high efficiency photovoltaic devices, with conversion efficiency up to 46%. Their subcells are designed to absorb in a specific and complementary range of the solar spectrum, and are connected in series with tunnel junctions. The tandem architecture InGaP/GaAs - with bandgaps of 1.87 eV and 1.42 eV respectively - is mature and its efficiency could be enhanced by incorporating subcell(s) with bandgaps of 1 eV and/or 0.7 eV. The Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth of such low bandgap materials has thus to be developed, as well as low-resistive tunnel junctions with good structural and optical properties.

Based on the MBE growth and the simulation of GaAs tunnel junctions, we have identified interband tunneling as the predominant transport mechanism in such devices rather than trap-assisted-tunneling. The interband tunneling mechanism could be enhanced with the type II GaAsSb/InGaAs heterostructure. Using this material system, we have then demonstrated tunnel junctions with very low electrical resistivity with a limited degradation of the optical and structural properties inherently induced by the use of low band-gap and lattice-mismatched GaAsSb and InGaAs materials.

Moreover, we fabricated an innovative AlInGaAs/AlGaAsSb tunnel junction as a graded buffer architecture that could be used for the incorporation of a 1 eV metamorphic subcell. We then developed and characterized InGaAsN(Bi) materials with band-gaps of ~1eV, taking advantage of in-situ wafer curvature measurements during the MBE growth to control the lattice-mismatch.

Preliminary solar cells based on GaAs, 1 eV dilute nitride and metamorphic InGaAs have been fabricated and characterized validating the developed tunnel junction architectures. This work has enabled to demonstrate the potential of the type II GaAsSb/InGaAs heterostructure to meet the challenges posed by the conception and the fabrication of GaAsbased MJSCs, both for the tunnel junction and the 1 eV subcell.

Key words

photovoltaic, epitaxy, multi-junction solar cells, III-V semiconductors, tunnel junction