Abstract

We propose a method to determine the reference impedance of the TRA calibration technique for vector network analysers. This method was developed within the framework of our activity on traceability of on-wafer S parameters measurements. Starting from a modified TRA calibration procedure, we demonstrate the possibility to determine the calibration reference impedance, and leading to a significant reduction of the measurement uncertainties. In comparison with results obtained using the reference multiline TRL calibration technique, the results that we obtain show the efficiency of the present method.

Key words

vector network analyser
S parameters
on-wafer measurements
TRA calibration

Abstract

The LNE has recently developed a 1 V programmable Josephson voltage standard specially dedicated to its transfer activities such as calibration of DC voltage references (Zener diode reference and Weston saturated standard cells) and digital voltmeters of high precision. This new programmable Josephson voltage standard allows the LNE to propose new calibration capabilities with reduced uncertainties while taking advantage of the simplicity to operate programmable Josephson array. The 1.018 V output voltage of the Zener diode reference can then be calibrated with a typical relative uncertainty of 80 nV (k = 2) in the framework of routine calibration services (an improvement by a factor 7). This paper describes the design of the new system and its metrological performances.

Key words

DC volltage standard
josephson effect
programmable josephson junction array
voltage calibration

Abstract

This paper describes a new primary standard at LNE for precision measurement of RMS values and total harmonic distortion of periodic signals containing a fundamental frequency at 50 Hz and quasistationary harmonics which maximum order is 50. The method is based on the sampling of the signals and the analysis of the samples by discrete Fourier transform. The traceability to the SI units is ensured by comparing the measurements to those obtained using a thermal converter. The standard uncertainty for RMS value and total harmonic distortion are respectively 22 µV/V and 0,0025% for all the signals studied.

Key words

primary standard
quasi-stationnary harmonic
sampling technique
aperture time
thermal converter

Abstract

The article presents the new electrical power measurement capabilities at LNE. The primary standard is based on sampling techniques. The power is calculated with a discrete Fourier transform algorithm, which is used to process the quantised samples of the voltage and current signals. Up to now, this primary standard was characterised only to measure active power for sinusoidal signals in the 45 Hz–65 Hz frequency range. From now on, the reactive power can also be measured and the frequency range has been extended to 400 Hz.

Key words

digital wattmetter
active and reactive powers
uncertainty budget

Abstract

The RMS value of a signal is measured by averaging its squared value over an infinite duration, and similarly a power is measured by averaging the product of two signals (voltage and current). These computations of square, product and average are very easy when the signal has been digitised, but this digitisation carries three distinct sources of errors: truncation, sampling and quantification. These three error sources are studied independently of each others, as well as methods for reducing them, especially the use of a weighting window. With this “windowing”, a statistical study of the simultaneous effect of these three error sources has been made by simulation with a very large number of parameters values, and formulas are presented, which link the standard deviation to the resolution and the number of samples.

Key words

digitising
troncation
sampling
quantification
windowing

Abstract

This work explores MEMS (Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems) potentialities to produce flexible AC voltage references through mechanical-electrical transduction that could be used for high precision electrical metrology and for applications in miniaturized instrumentation. AC voltage references ranging from 2 V to 90 V have been designed and fabricated using the same Epitaxial Silicon On Insulator (SOI) Surface Micromachining process that permits an accurate control of both dimensions and material properties. The measured MEMS AC voltage reference values have been found in a good agreement with the calculations performed with Coventor software. These test structures have been used to develop the read-out electronics to drive the MEMS and to design a second set of devices with improved characteristics. Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy measurements carried out on the new MEMS showed resonance frequencies of about a few kilohertz, which makes it possible to have AC voltage references working from about tens of kHz. Moreover, the stability of the MEMS out-put voltage at 100 kHz has been found very promising for the best samples where the relative deviation from the mean value over almost 12 h showed a standard deviation of 6.3 × 10-6, which is a very good result.

Key words

ELECTRICAL METROLOGY
MEMS design
voltage reference
SOI process

Abstract

We present our experimental set-up and discuss the results obtained within the framework of the ANR-TRIMET project which aim was the closure of the quantum metrological triangle (QMT) at a relative uncertainty level of 1 part in 106. This experiment consists in achieving Ohm’s law with the three effects used and investigated in quantum electrical metrology: Josephson effect (JE), quantum Hall effect (QHE) and single electron tunnelling effect (SET). The aim is to check the consistency of the phenomenological constants KJ, RK and QX associated with these effects and theoretically expressed with the fundamental constants e and h (elementary charge and Planck constant, respectively). Such an experiment is a contribution for a new definition of the International System of Units (SI). Also, the obtained results are a first step towards a determination of e.

Key words

quantum electrical metrology
fundamental constant
tunneling effect
single electron device

Abstract

To fill the gap of intermediate frequencies 100 kHz–100 MHz for which still remains a lack of traceability of impedance measurements for recent measurement instruments, LNE has established the traceability of a 4 ports vector network analyzer (VNA) and applied the method of Suzuki to measure four terminal pair impedances (Z4TP). In order to establish the traceability of the 4 ports VNA, used to measure Z4TP, LNE has investigated successively two different ways. We have developed 4TP calculable thin-film resistors, and then we have established the traceability of the “Unknown Thru” calibration method. We will show the two approaches and the measurement results up to 10 MHz obtained for a 1 000 pF capacitor with the associated uncertainties.

Key words

Impédance
Vector Network Analyzer
Calculable Resistance
TRACEABILITY
standard

Publications and communications regarding the « Watt balance » (« Kibble balance ») project by authors of the French metrology network in 2006

Publications

BIRABEN F., CADORET M., CLADE P., GENEVES G., GOURNAY P., GUELLATI-KHELIFA S., JULIEN L., JUNCAR P., DE MIRANDES E. et NEZ F., “Proposal for new experimental schemes to determine the Avogadro constant”, Metrologia, 46, 2006, L47-L50.

HADDAD D., CHASSAGNE L., JUNCAR P., TOPÇU S., WAKIM M. et ALAYLI Y., « Contrôle de position et de vitesse à l’échelle nanométrique dans la balance du watt du LNE », Revue française de métrologie, 6, 2006, 25-31.

LE GOUËT J., CHEINET P., THERKILDSEN K., PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F.., LANDRAGIN A. et CLAIRON A., « Premiers résultats d’un gravimètre atomique au LNE-SYRTE », Journal de Physique IV, 135, 2006, 213-214.

VILLAR F. et GENEVES G., « Balance du watt française, conception et réalisation d’un système de guidage par éléments flexibles (partie 1) », Contrôles essais mesures, avril 2006, 75-77.

VILLAR F. et GENEVES G., « Balance du watt française, conception et réalisation d’un système de guidage par éléments flexibles (partie 1) », Contrôles essais mesures, octobre 2006, 82-86.

WAKIM M., TOPÇU S., CHASSAGNE L., NASSER J., ALAYLI J. et JUNCAR P., “Highly accurate laser wavelength meter based on Doppler effect”, Optics Communications, 262, 2006, 97-102.

Communications

LE GOUËT J., KIM J., CHEINET P., PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., CLAIRON A. et LANDRAGIN A, “Atom interferometry for accurate measurement of gravity”, Young Atom Opticians (YAO), Palaiseau, France, 14-18 février 2006.

VILLAR F., DAVID J., GENEVÈS G., JUNCAR P. et PINOT P., “Long stroke flexure stage for a watt balance experiment”, 6th Euspen international conference, Baden bei Wien, Autriche, 28 mai - 1er juin 2006.

LE GOÜET J., KIM J., HOLLEVILLE D., CLAIRON A., LANDRAGIN A. et PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., “Investigation of the sensitivity limits of an atomic gravimeter”, 38th Conference of the European Group on Atomic Systems (EGAS), Ischia, Italie, 7-10 juin 2006.

LE GOUËT J., KIM J., HOLLEVILLE D., CLAIRON A., LANDRAGIN A. et PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., “Recent improvements in the accuracy and sensitivity of the LNE-SYRTE atomic gravimeter”, 38th Conference of the European Group on Atomic Systems (EGAS), Ischia, Italie, 7-10 Juin 2006.

LE GOUËT J., KIM J., HOLLEVILLE D., CLAIRON A., LANDRAGIN A. et PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., « Etude des limites de la sensibilité d'un gravimètre atomique », 4e Colloque de la Division Physique Atomique, Moléculaire et Optique de la Société française de physique, Dijon, France, 5-7 juillet 2006.

GENEVÈS G., GOURNAY P., HAUCK C., DJORDJEVIC S. et BEHR R., “Characterization of a programmable voltage standard based on a SINIS Josephson junctions array for the French watt balance experiment”, 2006 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2006), Turin, Italie, 9-14 juillet 2006.

MALETRAS F., GOURNAY P., ROBINSON I. et GENEVÈS G., “A bias source for dynamic voltage measurements with a programmable Josephson junction array”, 2006 Conference on Precision ElectromagneticMmeasurements (CPEM 2006), Turin, Italie, 9-14 juillet 2006.

PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., LE GOUET J., KIM J., HOLLEVILLE D., CLAIRON A. et LANDRAGIN A., “A 87Rb cold atom gravimeter”, 20th International Conference on Atomic Physics, Innsbruck, Autriche, 16-21 juillet 2006.

CHASSAGNE L., « Mesure et contrôle subnanométrique d’un déplacement de grande course », Micronora, Besançon, France, septembre 2006.

JIANG Z. et al., “Relative campaign during the International Comparison of Absolute Gravimeters ICAG-2005 and the strategy of data treatment combined with the absolute results”, 1st International symposium of the International Gravity Field Service, Gravity field of Earth, Istanbul, Turquie, 28 août – 1er septembre 2006.

JUNCAR P., HADDAD D., CHASSAGNE L., TOPÇU S., WAKIM M. et ALAYLI Y., “Accurate velocity control and nano-displacement by laser heterodyne interferometry: A speed of light divider”, ODIMAT V, Madrid, Espagne, 3-6 octobre 2006.

GENEVES G., “The French watt balance project”, Simposio de metrologia 2006, Queretaro, Mexique, 24-27 octobre 2006.

OUEDRAOGO K., TOPÇU S., CHASSAGNE L. et ALAYLI Y., « Lambdamètre polarimétrique », 7e Colloque de Contrôle et Mesures Optiques pour l’Industrie, Mulhouse, France, novembre 2006.

WAKIM M., CHASSAGNE L., TOPÇU S. et ALAYLI Y., « Système de déplacement deux axes dédié aux applications de nano-déplacements », 7e Colloque de Contrôle et Mesures Optiques pour l’Industrie, Mulhouse, France, novembre 2006.

Publications and communications regarding the « Watt balance » (« Kibble balance ») project by authors of the French metrology network in 2005

Publications

CHASSAGNE L, TOPÇU S., ALAYLI Y. et JUNCAR P., “Highly accurate positioning control method for piezoelectric actuators based on phase-shifting optoelectronics”, Measurement Science and Technology, 16, 2005, 1771-1777.

GENEVÈS G., GOURNAY P., GOSSET A., LECOLLINET  M., VILLAR F., PINOT P., JUNCAR P., CLAIRON A., LANDRAGIN A., HOLLEVILLE D., PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., DAVID J., BESBES J., ALVES F., CHASSAGNE L. et TOPÇU S., “The BNM watt balance project”, IEEE Transaction on Instumentation and Measurement, 54, 2, avril 2005, 850-853.

GOURNAY P., GENEVÈS G., ALVES F., BESBES J., VILLAR F. et DAVID J., “Magnetic circuit design for the BNM watt balance experiment”, IEEE Transaction on Instrumentation and Meaurement, 54, 2, avril 2005, 742-745.

TOPÇU S., CHASSAGNE L., ALAYLI Y. et JUNCAR P., “Improving the accuracy of homodyne Michelson interferometers using polarisation state measurement techniques, Optics Communications, 247, mars 2005, 133-139.

Communications

CHEINET P., THERKILDSEN K.T., LE GOUËT J., PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., HOLLEVILLE D., LANDRAGIN A. et CLAIRON A., “Construction of an absolute gravimeter using atom interferometry with cold 87Rb atoms”, Workshop on Quantum engineering with photons, atoms and molecules, Les Houches, France, février 2005.

THERKILDSEN K.T., CHEINET P., LE GOUËT J., PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., HOLLEVILLE D., LANDRAGIN A. et CLAIRON A., “Cold atom absolute gravimeter for the Watt Balance”, Young Atom Optician, Hannovre, Allemagne, février 2005.

LANDRAGIN A., CANUEL B., CHEINET P., GAUGUET A., FILS J., LEDUC F., BORDÉ CH.J., BOUYER P., DIMARCQ N., HOLLEVILLE D., PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F. et CLAIRON A., “Results on inertial measurement with a Raman interferometer”, Quantum Electronics and Laser Symposium, 2005, Baltimore, Etats-Unis d’Amérique, mai 2005.

IMPENS F., BOUYER P., LANDRAGIN A. et BORDE CH.J., “Coherent matter-wave gravimeter”, XVII International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, Cairngorms, Ecosse, juin 2005.

LANDRAGIN A., CHEINET P., THERKILDSEN K.T., LE GOUËT J., PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., HOLLEVILLE D. et CLAIRON A., “Cold atom absolute gravimeter for the Watt Balance”, XVII International Conference on Laser Spectroscopy, Cairngorms, Ecosse, juin 2005.

CHEINET P., PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., THERKILDSEN K., LE GOÜET J., CLAIRON A., HOLLEVILLE D. et LANDRAGIN A., “An 87Rb cold atom interferometric gravimeter”, European Quantum Electronic Conference, Munich, Allemagne, juin 2005.

THERKILDSEN K.T., CHEINET P., LE GOÜET J., PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., HOLLEVILLE D., CLAIRON A. et LANDRAGIN A., “Cold atom absolute gravimeter”, Danish Physical Society Annual Meeting, Nyborg, Danemark, 2-3 juin 2005.

PINOT P., GENEVÈS G., JUNCAR P., LECOLLINET M., MACE S. et VILLAR F., « Expérience française de la balance du watt : conception et réalisation du comparateur de forces », 12Congrès international de métrologie, Lyon, France, 20-23 juin 2005.

VILLAR F., DAVID J., GENEVÈS G., JUNCAR P. et PINOT P. « Balance du watt française : conception et réalisation d’un système de guidage par éléments flexibles », 12e Congrès international de métrologie, Lyon, France, 20-23 juin 2005.

IMPENS F., BOUYER P., LANDRAGIN A. et BORDE CH.J., “Coherent matter-wave gravimeter”, 9e Colloque sur les Lasers et l’Optique Quantique (Coloq 9), Dijon, France, septembre 2005.

CHEINET P., PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., THERKILDSEN K., LE GOÜET J., CLAIRON A., HOLLEVILLE D. et LANDRAGIN A., “Cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeter”, Russian-French Laser Symposium, Nice, France, septembre 2005.

LANDRAGIN A., CANUEL B., CHEINET P., FILS J., GAUGUET A., KIM J., LEDUC F., LE GOUËT J., THERKILDSEN K., BOUYER P., BORDE CH.J., CLAIRON A., DIMARCQ N. ET HOLLEVILLE D., PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., « Capteurs inertiels atomiques : gyromètre et gravimètre », Les journées du GREX, Paris, France, octobre 2005.

CANUEL B., CHEINET P., GAUGUET A., FILS J., KIM J., LEDUC F., LE GOÜET J., PETELSKI T., THERKILDSEN K., BOUYER P., BORDE CH.J., CLAIRON A., HOLLEVILLE D., DIMARCQ N., LANDRAGIN A. et PEREIRA DOS SANTOS F., “Inertial force measurement with cold atom interferometry: gyroscope and gravimeter”, ACES Symposium Atomic Time in Space, Noordwijk, Pays-Bas, 10-11 octobre 2005.

GENEVÈS G., « La balance du watt », Journée R&D LNE, 12 octobre 2005.

GENEVÈS G., GOURNAY P., HAUCK C., BEHR R., ROBINSON I. et MALETRAS F., “Watt balance experiment and voltage measurements”, Euromet contact persons meeting, Berne, Suisse, 14 octobre 2005.

GENEVÈS G., “Progress report on the French watt balance”, Watt balance technical meeting - WBTM 2005, NIST Gaithersburg,
2-4 novembre 2005.

GOURNAY P. “Electrical References & Voltage Measurement Techniques”, Watt balance technical meeting - WBTM 2005, NIST Gaithersburg, 2-4 novembre 2005.

JUNCAR P., “Watt balance interferometer”, Watt balance technical meeting - WBTM 2005, NIST Gaithersburg, 2-4 novembre 2005.

MEURY P.-A, “Metallurgical characterization of materials for reference mass standard in watt balance experiment”, Watt balance technical meeting - WBTM 2005, NIST Gaithersburg, 2-4 novembre 2005.

PINOT P., “Euromet mass project 734”, Watt balance technical meeting WBTM 2005, NIST Gaithersburg, 2-4 novembre 2005.